Healthcare Bibliography — General

History of Medicine and Healthcare

This is by no means an attempt at a complete bibliography of this subject. The National Library of Medicine's History of Medicine homepage is an essential starting point:

Jacalyn Duffin, MD, PhD, has an extensive online bibliography:

Corrections and suggestions for additions will help make this bibliography a more useful resource for everyone — book [at] coloradohealthcarehistory [dot] com

George Worthington Adams: Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

American Institute of the History of Pharmacy website. University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy.

David Armstrong and Elizabeth Metzger Armstrong: The Great American Medicine Show: Being an Illustrated History of Hucksters, Healers, Health Evangelists, and Heroes from Plymouth Rock to the Present. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1991.

Robert B. Baker et al. (editors) : The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the AMA's Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

John M. Barry: The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. Revised edition. New York: Penguin Books, 2005. "Barry has chosen a very specific point of view: the transition of American medicine and medical training from folk wisdom to science." (review by Robin Wolfson on

George Miller Beard, AM, MD: American Nervousness, Its Causes and Consequences, A Supplement to Nervous Exhaustion (Neurasthenia). New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1881.

Wooster Beach, MD: The American Practice Condensed. Or the Family Physician: Being the System of Medicine: On Vegetable Principles, Designed for All Classes. This Work Embraces the Character, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of the Diseases of Men, Women, and Children, of All Climates. Complete in One Volume Illustrated with Nearly Two Hundred Engravings. Sixteenth Edition, Revised with the Latest Improvements. New York: Published and For Sale by James M'Alister, 141 Fulton-Street, and By Booksellers Generally, 1850.
Part I. — The Means of Preventing Disease and Promoting Health.
Part II. — General Principles of the Reformed Practice of Medicine and Indications of Cure.
Part III. — Internal Diseases.
Part IV. — Surgical Diseases.
Part V.— Midwifery.
Part VI. — Vegetable Materia Medica.
Part VII.— Pharmacy and Dispensatory, or Compounds.
Part VIII. — Diet for the Healthy and the Sick.
Part IX. — Outlines of Anatomy and Physiology, with Illustrations.
Jeffrey L. Berlant: Profession and Monopoly: A Study of Medicine in the United States and Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

Alex Berman: The Impact of the Nineteenth-Century Botanico-Medical Movement in American Pharmacy and Medicine. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1954.

Roberta Bivins: Alternative Medicine? A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Black History in Health Care on the "Black Doctors Columbus Ohio" website.

Charlotte G. Borst: Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870- 1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Allan M. Brandt: No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

James O. Breeden (ed.): Medicine in the West. Manhattan, Kansas: Sunflower University Press, 1982.

Stewart M. Brooks: Civil War Medicine. Springfield, Illinois: C.C. Thomas, 1966.

Phillis Browne: How Baby Was Saved. London, Paris and New York: Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co., 1884.
A response to an influential anti-vaccination tract called How Baby Was Killed.

"Phillis Browne" was the pseudonym of Sarah Sharp Hamer (1839-1927), the author of a popular series of cookbooks and other volumes for women and girls.
John Charles Bucknill, MD, and Daniel Hack Tuke, MD: Manual of Psychological Medicine containing The Lunacy Laws, the Nosology, Aetiology, Statistics, Description, Diagnosis, Pathology, and Treatment of Insanity, with an Appendix of Cases. Fourth edition. London: J.& A. Churchill, New Burlington Street, 1879. Adobe Acrobat version: — slow-loading but worth the wait.

Mark Caldwell: The Last Crusade: The War on Consumption, 1862-1954. New York: Atheneum, 1988.

Ralph Cantafio: Whatever Happened to the General Practitioners? Commack, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 1997.

Frederick Fox Cartwright: A Social History of Medicine. Themes in British Social History. New York, London: Longman, 1997.

James H. Cassedy: Medicine and American Growth, 1800-1860. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.

James H. Cassedy: Medicine in America: A Short History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. xi + 187 pp.

Daniel Webster Cathell, MD: The Physician Himself and What He Should Add to the Strictly Scientific. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey, 1882.
Dr. Cathell is described on the title page as "Late Professor of Pathology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore; Ex-President of the Medical and Surgical Society; Active Member of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland; Honorary Member of the Lincoln Philosophical Society, Etc. Etc."
James H. Cassedy: Medicine in America: A Short History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Stephen Chalmers: The Beloved Physician, Edward Livingston Trudeau. With Illustrations. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1916.

"Civil War Medicine" on "Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War" website.

Helen Clapesattle: The Doctors Mayo. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1941.

Egbert Cleave: Cleave's Biographical Cyclopaedia of Homoepathic Physicians and Surgeons. Philadelphia: Galaxy Publishing Company, 1873. (HTML) and
Homeopathic physicians in Colorado were prominent and respected by many of their "regular" colleagues during the period from about 1885 until 1910, by which time most of them had adopted regular medicine. The 1893 update of Cleave's directory is available in a low-quality text version:
Kenneth "Bear Hawk" Cohen: Honoring the Medicine: The Essential Guide to Native American Healing. New York: Ballantine Books, 2006.

A.R. Colón and P.A. Colón: Nurturing Children: A History of Pediatrics. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Thomas E. Cone: History of American Pediatrics. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979.

Cynthia A. Connolly: Saving Sickly Children: The Tuberculosis Preventorium in American Life, 1909-1970. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

Harris L. Coulter, PhD: Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought. 4 volumes. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1975-1994. Harris Coulter was an historian of homeopathic medicine.
  • Volume I: The Patterns Emerge: Hippocrates to Paracelsus. 1975.
  • Volume II: The Origins of Modern Western Medicine: J. B. Van Helmont to Claude Bernard. 1977.
  • Volume III: The Conflict Between Homeopathy and the American Medical Association: Science and Ethics in American Medicine 1800-1910. 1982.
  • Volume IV: Twentieth-Century Medicine, The Bacteriological Era. 1994.
John K. Crellin: A Social History of Medicines in the Twentieth Century: To Be Taken Three Times a Day. New York: Pharmaceutical Press, 2004.

Horace Herndon Cunningham: Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Service. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1970.

Thomas M. Daniel: The Story of Tuberculosis. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1999.

Audrey B. Davis: Medicine and Its Technology: An Introduction to the History of Medical Instrumentation. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Nathan Smith Davis, MD: History of the American Medical Association, from its Organization up to January, 1855. To Which is Appended Biographical Notices, with Portraits of the Presidents of the Association, and of the Author. Edited by S.W. Butler, M.D. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1855.
Dr. Davis is identified on the title page as "Professor of Principles and Practice of Medicine and Clinical Medicine in Rush Medical College; Member of the American Medical Association; Physician to the Mercy Hospital, Chicago; Permanent Member of the Medical Society of the State of New York; Fellow of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York; Corresponding Member of the New York Medical Association; Member of the Illinois State Medical Society, Etc. Etc. Etc."
"Dittrick Medical History Center" website. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

William J. Doherty, Charles E. Christianson, and Marvin B. Sussman (editors): Family Medicine: The Maturing of a Discipline. New York: Haworth Press, 1987.

Thomas Dormandy: The White Death, a History of Tuberculosis. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Jacalyn Duffin, MD, PhD: History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction. 2nd revised and expanded edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Dr. Duffin is professor of the history of medicine at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario.

John Duffy: The Healers: A History of American Medicine. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976.

Richard Dunlop: Doctors of the American Frontier. New York: Doubleday, 1965.

John Evans, MD: "Observations on the Spread of Asiatic Cholera and its Communicable Nature," Northwestern Medical and Surgical Journal, September 1849.

Georgina Feldberg: Disease and Class: Tuberculosis and the Shaping of Modern North American Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Austin Flint, MD (ed.): Medical Ethics and Etiquette: The Code of Ethics Adopted by the American Medical Association, with Commentaries by Austin Flint, MD. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883.

Frank R. Freemon: Gangrene and Glory: Medical Care during the American Civil War. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

Eliot Freidson: Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Eliot Freidson: Professional Dominance: The Social Structure of Medical Care. New York: Atherton Press, 1970.

W. Bruce Fye: American Cardiology: The History of a Specialty and Its College. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur: The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987

Norman Gevitz: The DOs: Osteopathic Medicine in America. 2nd edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Norman Gevitz (ed.): Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

Mary C. Gillett: The Army Medical Department, 1818-1865. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, US Army, 1987.

Mary C. Gillett: The Army Medical Department, 1865-1917. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, US Army, 1995.

Mary C. Gillett: The Army Medical Department, 1917-1941. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, US Army, 2009.

Charles R. Greenleaf, MD: A Manual for the Medical Officers of the United States Army. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1864. Dr. Greenleaf was an assistant surgeon in the US Army.

Gerald N. Grob: Mental Illness and American Society, 1875-1940. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Gerald N. Grob: The Mad Among Us: A History of the Care of America's Mentally Ill. New York: Free Press, 1994.

Gerald N. Grob: Mental Institutions in America: Social Policy to 1875. New York: Free Press, 1973.

Arthur W. Hafner (ed.): Directory of Deceased American Physicians, 1804-1929: a genealogical guide to over 149,000 medical practitioners providing brief biographical sketches drawn from the American Medical Association's Deceased Physician Masterfile. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1993.

Thomas B. Hall: Medicine on the Santa Fe Trail. Dayton, Ohio: Morningside Bookshop, 1971.

John S. Haller: American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910. Urbana and London: University of Illinois Press, 1981. An excellent, detailed study of the evolution of medical practice.

David Hamilton: The Healers: A History of Medicine in Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd., 2003.

David Hamilton: A History of Organ Transplantation: Ancient Legends to Modern Practice. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2012. See

Martha L. Hildreth and Bruce T. Moran (eds.) Disease and Medical Care in the Mountain West: Essays on Region, History, and Practice. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1998.

Beatrix Hoffman. Healthcare for Some: Rights and Rationing in the United States Since 1930. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Donald R. Hopkins: The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in History. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Mary Hotaling: "In Pursuit of Health — The Rise of the Curing Industry (1860-1881)" from "A History of Saranac Lake" on the Historic Saranac Lake Wiki. There's also a section on Edward Livingston Trudeau, MD:
For at least a century, prominent women were movers and shakers for healthcare institutions in every part of Colorado; the same was true at Saranac Lake. See "Doings in the Adirondacks; Prominent Women Devoting Much of Their Time to Charity Work," New York Times, July 23, 1905.
Illustrated Catalogue of Surgical Instruments, Appliances, Bandages, Apparatus for Deformities, Dislocations and Fractures, Trusses, &c. Manufactured and Sold by J.H. Gemrig, No. 109 South Eighth Street, Philadelphia. c. 1868.

Philip P. Jacobs: The Campaign Against Tuberculosis in the United States including a Directory of Institutions Dealing with Tuberculosis in the United States and Canada. Compiled under the direction of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. Russell Sage Foundation. New York: Charities Publication Committee, 1908.

David Shumway Jones: Rationalizing Epidemics: Meanings and Uses of American Indian Mortality since 1600. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2004. From his Introduction:
"It is not possible to provide detailed, contextualized history of all of American Indian health in a single project. I have chosen four specific cases: (1) responses to the decline of Indian populations in the first decades of colonization in New England; (2) efforts to spread and contain smallpox on the western frontier from the 1760s to the 1830s; (3) the emergence and management of tuberculosis on the Sioux reservation in the late nineteenth century; and (4) health research on the Navajo reservation in the 1950s and 1960s."
Albert R. Jonsen: A Short History of Medical Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Robert F. Karolevitz: Doctors of the Old West: A Pictorial History of Medicine on the Frontier. New York: Bonanza Books, 1967.

J.J. Keegan: "The Prevailing Pandemic of Influenza," Journal of the American Medical Association 71 (1918), pp.1051-58.

Joseph F. Kett: Formation of the American Medical Profession: The Role of Institutions, 1780-1860. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1968.

William Harvey King, MD (ed.): I. Illustrated. Volume I edited By William Harvey King, MD, LLD, Dean of the Faculty New York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital. New York and Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1905.
"Homoeopathy in Colorado" is on pages 407-409.
S. Adolphus Knopf, MD: A History of the National Tuberculosis Association: The Antituberculosis Movement in the United States. New York: The National Tuberculosis Association, 1922.

Thomas S. Kuhn: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Second Edition, Enlarged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Edward Kremers and George Urdang. Kremers and Urdang's History of Pharmacy. 4th edition, edited by Glenn Sonnedecker. Madison, Wisconsin: American Institute for the History of Pharmacy, 1986.

Ruth Macklin: The Doctor-Patient Relationship in Different Cultures. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Lara Marks: Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion. (1861-65.) Prepared, in Accordance with Acts of Congress, Under the Direction of Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes, United States Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870. 6 volumes. A major contribution to the development of modern medicine and surgery.
Vol. 1, Part II:
Adam G. N. Moore, MD: "Dr. Buchan and American Family Medicine," "Boston Medical Library" website and see

J. Stuart Moore: Chiropractic in America: The History of a Medical Alternative. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Seyed B. Mostofi (ed.): Who's Who in Orthopedics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005

"The National Museum of Civil War Medicine" website.

Hunter Oatman-Stanford: "Getting It On: The Covert History of the American Condom," Collectors Weekly August 16, 2012.

Peter D. Olch: "Medicine in the Indian Fighting Army, 1866-1890," Journal of the West 21, No. 3 (July 1982): 32-41.

John Parascandola: Sex, Sin, and Science: A History of Syphilis in America. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2008.

John R. Paul: A History of Poliomyelitis. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1971.

Martin S. Pernick: A Calculus of Suffering: Pain, Professionalism, and Anesthesia in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Naomi Rogers: Dirt and Disease: Polio before FDR. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

George Rosen, MD, PhD: "From Frontier Surgeon to Industrial Hygienist: The Strange Career of George M. Kober," American Journal of Public Health, June 1975, Vol. 65, No. 6, pp. 638-643.
In 1914, Dr. George M. Kober (1850-1931), dean of the Georgetown University Medical School, was president of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. From 1920 to 1927, Dr. Kober was secretary of the Association — which in 1918 had become the National Tuberculosis Association.
George Rosen and Charles E. Rosenberg: The Structure of American Medical Practice, 1875-1941. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Charles E. Rosenberg: The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Charles E. Rosenberg: Our Present Complaint: American Medicine, Then and Now. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

Karen Deane Ross: Making Medicine Scientific: Simon Flexner and Experimental Medicine at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, 1901-1945. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, August, 2006.

David J. Rothman: The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971.

David J. Rothman: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. 2nd edition. New Brunswick [N.J.]: AldineTransaction, 2008.

William G. Rothstein: American Physicians in the Nineteenth Century: From Sects to Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Ira M. Rutkow, MD: American Surgery: An Illustrated History. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1988.

Ira M. Rutkow, MD: The History of Surgery in the United States, 1775-1900. 2 volumes. San Francisco: Norman, 1988 and 1992.

Michael Sappol (ed.): Hidden Treasure: The National Library of Medicine. Bethesda, Maryland: National Library of Medicine. New York: Blast Books, 2012.

Todd Lee Savitt: Race and Medicine in Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century America. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2007.

Glenna R. Schroeder-Lein: The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2008.
From the book jacket: "The history of Civil War medicine-the staggering challenge of treating wounds and disease on both sides of the conflict-is one of the most compelling sagas of the war. This first-of-its-kind encyclopedia offers general readers and scholars alike detailed coverage of this amazing medical story. It offers clear explanations of unfamiliar medical terms, diseases, wounds and treatments. More than 200 A-Z entries address notable medical personalities, the battles with the greatest medical significance, soldiers' aid societies, medical department structure, women's medical roles, sanitation issues, and much more."
David Harley Serlin: Replaceable You: Engineering the Body in Postwar America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Edward Shorter: Bedside Manners: The Troubled History of Doctors and Patients. Harmondsworth, England: Viking Penguin, 1986.

Edward Shorter: Doctors and Their Patients: A Social History. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991.

Richard Harrison Shryock: Medicine in America: Historical Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Henry E. Sigerist, MD: American Medicine. Translation by Hildegard Nagel of Amerika und die Medizin (Leipzig, 1933). New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1934.

Susan L. Smith: Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired: Black Women's Health Activism in America, 1890-1950. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

James A. Spalding, MD: Dr. Lyman Spalding, the Originator of the United States Pharmacopoeia, Co-Laborer with Dr. Nathan Smith in the Founding of the Dartmouth Medical School and Its First Chemical Lecturer; President and Professor of Anatomy and Surgery of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District, at Fairfield, N.Y., by his grandson, Dr. James Alfred Spalding. Boston: W.M. Leonard, Publisher, 1916.

John R. Stanard: Caring for America: The Story of Family Practice. Virginia Beach: Donning Co. and American Academy of Family Physicians, 1997.

The Standard medical directory of North America, 1902: Including a directory of practicing physicians in the United States of America, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, and Central America. Also directories respectively of medical officers of the U.S. Army and Navy, medical societies, medical colleges, medical laws and boards, medical publications, (books and periodicals), hospitals and sanitariums, mineral springs, drugs and medicines, medical and surgical products, manufacturers, life insurance companies, etc. Chicago, Illinois: G.P. Engelhard & Company, 1902.
Colorado physicians are listed on pp. 67-72, and Colorado's 1902 medical laws are on pg. 736.

The Standard Medical Directory of North America, 1903-04 — note that the listings for California and Colorado are mixed together, possibly because of a faulty scan —
Paul Starr: Remedy and Reaction: The Peculiar American Struggle over Health Care Reform. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Paul Starr: The Social Transformation of American Medicine: the Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry. 1983 Pulitzer Prize and the Bancroft Prize in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1982. One of the most important studies of American medicine ever published.

Paul Starr: "Social Transformation Twenty Years On," in "Transforming American Medicine: A Twenty-Year Retrospective on The Social Transformation of American Medicine," ed. by Keith Wailoo, Timothy Stoltzfus Jost, and Mark Schlesinger, Journal of Health Policy, Politics, and Law 29: 1005-1019. 2004.

Bernhard Joseph Stern: Society and Medical Progress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1941.

M.L. Tina Stevens: Bioethics in America: Origins and Cultural Politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Rosemary A. Stevens: "The Invention, Stumbling, and Re-Invention of the Modern U.S. Veterans Health Care System, 1918-1924." in Veterans' Policies, Veterans' Politics: New Perspectives on Veterans in the Modern United States. Ed. Stephen R. Ortiz. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012.

Eric Stone: American Indian Medicine. New York: AMS Press, 1978. Reprint of the 1932 edition which was issued as No. 7 of Olio medica, a series of primers on the history of medicine.

Michael Teller: The Tuberculosis Movement: A Public Health Campaign in the Progressive Era. New York: Greenwood, 1988.

Samuel Thomson: New Guide to Health; or Botanic Family Physician. Containing a Complete System of Practice on a Plan Entirely New: With a Description of the Vegetables Made Use of and Directions for Preparing and Administering Them, to Cure Disease. To Which is Prefixed, A Narrative of the Life and Medical Discoveries of the Author. Boston: 1835. The first edition was published in 1822.
This self-taught herbalist's book-and his alternative system called "Thomsonian Medicine"-were very popular in the US during the nineteenth century. For $20, a family could buy a "patent" that permitted them to use his system and buy his herbs and recipes. A copy of his book was included with each patent. By 1840, Samuel Thomson (1769-1843) had sold more than 100,000 patents.

Timeline: Treatments for Mental Illness. "A Brilliant Madness: The Story of Nobel Prize Winning Mathematician John Nash," on the PBS website.

Luis H. Toledo-Pereyra: A History of American Medicine from the Colonial Period to the Early Twentieth Century. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.

Andrea Tone: Devices and Desires: A History of Contraceptives in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.

Andrea Tone and Elizabeth Siegel Watkins: Medicating Modern America: Prescription Drugs in History. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

The Transactions of the American Medical Association. Instituted 1847. Volume 1. Philadelphia: Printed for the Association by T.K. and P.G. Collins. 1848.

President Harry S Truman: "Special Message to the Congress Recommending a Comprehensive Health Program," November 19, 1945.

Stanley R. Truman: The History of the Founding of the American Academy of General Practice. St Louis: Warren H. Green and AAGP, 1969.

"Tuberculosis-Robert Koch and Tuberculosis-Koch's Famous Lecture", February 18, 2013

Daniel Hack Tuke, MD: The Insane in the United States and Canada. London: H.K. Lewis, 1885. 264 pp.
Chapter I: Early Lunacy Practice in America. Benjamin Rush, M.D.
Chapter II: Provision for the Insane in the United States, 1752 to 1876
Chapter III: Present Condition of the Insane in the United States
Chapter IV: Principal Asylums Visited
Chapter V: The Insane in Canada
6 Appendices
Elizabeth Van Steenwyk: Frontier Fever: The Silly, Superstitious-and Sometimes Sensible-Medicine of the Pioneers. New York: Walker, 1995.

Robert M. Veatch: Disrupted Dialogue: Medical Ethics and the Collapse of Physician-Humanist Communication (1770-1980). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Virgil J. Vogel: American Indian Medicine. Norman: Oklahoma University Press, 1970.

Frederick Rufenacht Walters, MD: Sanatoria for Consumptives: A Critical and Detailed Description together with an Exposition of the Open-Air or Hygienic Treatment of Phthisis. 3rd edition New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.,1905.

John Harley Warner: The Therapeutic Perspective: Medical Practice, Knowledge, and Identity in America, 1820-1885. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Alexander John Wedderbrun: A Compilation of the Pharmacy and Drug Laws of the Several States and Territories. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Chemistry. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1894.

George Weisz: Divide and Conquer: A Comparative History of Medical Specialization. New York; Oxford University Press, 2003.

George Weisz: "The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1997, 77: 536-574. Essential reading for anyone interested in the historical development of specialization, with superb bibliographic footnotes.
Abstract: This essay reexamines the nineteenth-century origins of medical specialization. It suggests that by the 1880s, specialization had become perceived as a necessity of medical science as a result of the realization of two preconditions:

First, a new collective desire to expand medical knowledge prompted clinical researchers to specialize; only specialization, it was believed, permitted the rigorous observation of many cases.

Second, administrative rationality suggested that one could best manage large populations through proper classification, gathering together individuals belonging to the same class and separating those belonging to different categories. Both of these conditions emerged first and most powerfully in early nineteenth-century Paris. They were, in contrast, uniquely underdeveloped in the fragmented medical community of London during this period.
George Weisz, "Medical Directories and Medical Specialization in France, Britain, and the United States," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 1997, 71: 23-68.

Henry Solomon Wellcome: The Evolution of Antiseptic Surgery: An Historical Sketch of the Use of Antiseptics from the Earliest Times. Lecture Memoranda. London: British Medical Association, 1910.

Mary Mills West ("Mrs. Max West"): Infant Care. US Department of Labor Children's Bureau, Julia C. Lathrop, Chief. Care of Children Series No. 2, Bureau Publication No. 8. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1914.

James C. Wharton: Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: Oxford, 2004.

Howard Wolinsky and Tom Brune. The Serpent on the Staff: The Unhealthy Politics of the American Medical Association. New York: Putnam, 1994.

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