Healthcare Bibliography — Colorado

History of Colorado

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Carl Abbott, Stephen J. Leonard, and Thomas J. Noel: Colorado: A History of the Centennial State. 4th edition. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005.

Wayne Allard: Colorado's U.S. Senators: A Biographical Guide. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2007.

Arturo Aldama, Elisa Facio, Daryl Maeda, and Reiland Rabaka (eds.): Enduring Legacies: Ethnic Histories and Cultures of Colorado. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2011.

Carleton Q. Anderson, Betty Shawcroft, and Robert Compton (compilers and editors): The Mormons: 100 Years in the San Luis Valley of Colorado, 1883-1983. La Jara, Colorado: La Jara Stake of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 1982.

Louisa Ward Arps (ed.): Faith on the Frontier Religion in Colorado Before August 1876. "Religion in Colorado: A Bibliography," compiled by Harold M. Parker, Jr. Denver: Colorado Council of Churches, 1976.

Louisa Ward Arps: "Father Kehler's Denver, 1860-1876," article in Denver Westerners Brand Book, 1973.

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Fort Wise, in the Territory of Kansas, on the eighteenth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, by and between Albert G. Boone and F. B. Culver, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the following named chiefs and delegates, representing the confederated tribes of Arapahoe and Cheyenne Indians of the Upper Arkansas River, viz: Little Raven, Storm, Shave-Head, and Big-Mouth, (on the part of the Arapahoes), and Black Kettle, White Antelope, Lean Bear, Little Wolf, and Left Hand, or Namos (on the part of the Cheyennes), they being thereto duly authorized by said confederated tribes of Indians.

Frederic J. Athearn: A Forgotten Kingdom: The Spanish Frontier in Colorado and New Mexico 1540-1821. Bureau of Land Management - Colorado. Cultural Resources Series Number 29. Second Edition, 1992.

Frederick J. Athearn: An Isolated Empire: A History of Northwestern Colorado. Bureau of Land Management — Colorado. Cultural Resources Series Number 2. 1982.

Frederick J. Athearn: Land of Contrast: A History of Southeast Colorado. Bureau of Land Management — Colorado. Cultural Resources Series Number 17. 1985.

Mary C. Ayres: "The Founding of Durango, Colorado," in Colorado Magazine 7:85-94. 1930.

James H. Baker and Le Roy R. Hafen, PhD (eds.): History of Colorado, prepared under the supervision of the State historical and natural history society of Colorado. Three Volumes (With which are issued two biographical volumes written and edited by the publishers). Denver: Linderman Company, 1927.
The first three volumes are subject chapters by individual authors, and are paged continuously. Volumes 4 and 5 contain biographical material. James H. Baker had been president (1892-1914) of the University of Colorado, and Le Roy Hafen, the associate editor, was the historian for the State Historical and Natural History Society.

There were 24 "special contributors," including Charles S. Elder, MD, professor of surgery emeritus at the University of Colorado, whose article titled "Medicine" is in Volume III, pp. 1041-1074. Although it's clear that Dr. Elder was sometime mistaken about certain facts-the Sisters of Mercy did not run St. Joseph's Hospital in Denver, for example-his account is close enough to some of what he writes about that he can include interesting local color and charm.

Caroline Bancroft: Denver's Lively Past. Boulder: Johnson Publishing Company, 1976.

Hubert H. Bancroft: History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888. Volume XXV of The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft. San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers, 1890.
The history of Colorado is in pp. 323-658. Like many other histories from this period, the interpretations and even some of the facts should not be accepted uncritically, but it's interesting and still worth reading. His footnotes contain long lists of names and some brief biographical statements.

Hubert H. Bancroft: History of the Pacific States of North America. Volume XX: Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888. San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers, 1890.

Gunther Barth: Instant Cities: Urbanization and the Rise of San Francisco and Denver. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

John Hanson Beadle: The undeveloped west; or, Five years in the territories: being a complete history of that vast region between the Mississippi and the Pacific, its resources, climate, inhabitants, natural curiosities, etc., etc. Life and adventure on prairies, mountains, and the Pacific coast. With two hundred and forty illustrations, from original sketches and photographic views of the scenery, cities, lands, mines, people, and curiosities of the great West. Philadelphia, Chicago, Cincinnati, and St. Louis: National Publishing Company, 1873.
Beadle was the Western correspondent for the Cincinnati Commercial.

Isaac Haight Beardsley: Echoes from Peak and Plain; or, Tales of Life, War, Travel, and Colorado Methodism. Introduction by Rev. David H. Moore, DD, Editor of the Western Christian Advocate. Cincinnati: Curts & Jennings. New York: Eaton & Mains, 1898.

Elmer F. Beckwith (compiler): State of Colorado 1901 Legislative Manual. Denver: The Smith-Brooks Printing Company, State Printers, 1901.

William A. Bell, M.A., M.B. Cantab., Fellow of the Royal Geographical and Ethnological Societies: New Tracks in North America: A Journal of Travel and Adventure Whilst Engaged in the Survey for a Southern Railroad to the Pacific Ocean During 1867-8, 2 volumes. London: Chapman and Hall, 1869.
Volume 1:
Volume 2:

Maxine Benson: 1001 Colorado Place Names. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1994.

Michael Beshoar, MD: All About Trinidad and Las Animas County, Colorado: Their History, Industries, Resources, Etc. Denver: Times Printing House and Blank Book Manufactory, 1882.
Dr. Beshoar began practicing medicine in Trinidad in 1867.

Isabella Lucy Bird: A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. 1879. –and–

Isabella Lucy Bird's "A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains": An Annotated Text. 1879. Illustrated and annotated edition by Ernest S. Bernard. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Isabella Lucy Bird: A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. Revised edition with an Introduction by Daniel Boorstin. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Amos Bixby: "History of Boulder County," in History of Clear Creek and Boulder Valleys, Colorado. Chicago: O.L. Baskin & Co., Historical Publishers, 1880, pp. 379-433.
The quotations from Amos Bixby used in this chronology were reprinted by William E. Davis in the first volume of his Glory Colorado!

William Blackmore: Colorado: Its Resources, Parks, and Prospects as a New Field for Emigration; With an Account of the Trenchara and Costilla Estates, in the San Luis Park. London: S. Low, Son, and Marston, 188, Fleet Street, English and Foreign, American and Colonial Booksellers, 1869.

Peggie Phipps Boegner and Richard Gachot: Halcyon days: An American Family through Three Generations. New York: Old Westbury Gardens and Abrams, 1986.
The story of steel mogul Henry Phipps, Jr. (1839-1934) and his oldest son John Shaffer "Jay" Phipps (1874-1958). Correspondence, memoirs, and more than 300 striking sepia-toned photographs.

De and Jay Bond: "Otero County, Colorado Genealogy and History" website.

Harold A. Boner: The Giant's Ladder: David H. Moffat and His Railroad. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Company, 1962.

Thomas D. Bonner (ed.): The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Mountaineer, Scout, and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians. New York: Harper and Brothers and London: Sampson Low, Son, and Company, 1856.

Samuel Bowles: The Switzerland of America: A Summer Vacation in the Parks and Mountains of Colorado. Springfield, Massachusetts: Samuel Bowles and Co.; New York: The American News Company; Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1869.

Patsy Bradbury: "The Legend of John H. Gregory,"

T. Donald Brandes: Military Posts of Colorado. Fort Collins: Old Army Press, 1973. 77 pages. Originally the author's BA thesis, Loretto Heights College, Denver.

Allen duPont Breck: The Episcopal Church in Colorado 1860-1963. The University of Denver Department of History Series The West in American History-Number Two. Denver, Colorado: Big Mountain Press, 1963.

Allen duPont Breck: From the Rockies to the World: A Companion to the History of the University of Denver, 1864-1989. 2nd edition. Denver: University of Denver, 1997.

James Bretz: Mansions of Denver: The Vintage Years 1870-1938. Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 2005.

Henrietta E. Bromwell (compiler): Fiftyniners' Directory, Colorado Argonauts 1858-1859 Pikes Peak Region. Denver, Colorado, 1926. A convenient guide to some of Colorado's original white settlers.

Henrietta E. Bromwell (compiler) and Ruth Moore (ed.): "Portrait and Biographical Index" website. Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy.
"In the early 1930's Henrietta Bromwell (1859-1946) organized and put in book form her Portrait and Biographical Index of materials she had collected from many sources from the beginnings of Colorado in 1859." Her astonishing work is available on the DPL website, and is essential for the study of early Colorado history.

Jeff Broome, PhD: "Indian Massacres in Elbert County, Colorado: New Information on the 1864 Hungate and 1868 Dietemann Murders," Denver Westerners Roundup LX:1, January-February 2004.

Fred Brown: The Persistence of Vision: The Denver Metro Chamber of Commerce. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Group, 2011.

Joseph G. Brown: The History of Equal Suffrage in Colorado, 1868-1898. Endorsed by the Non-Partisan Colorado Equal Suffrage Association. Denver: News Job Printing Company, 1898. The Appendix, pp. 55-59, lists "a few of the leaders in different parts of the state."

David Brundage: The Making of Working-Class Radicalism in the Mountain West: Denver, Colorado, 1880-1903. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

William N. Byers: Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado: History of Colorado. Chicago: The Century Publishing and Engraving Company, 1901.

Richard F. Carrillo and Daniel A. Jepson, with contributions by Sarah J. Pearce: Exploring the Colorado Frontier: A Study in Historical Archaeology at the Tremont House Hotel, Lower Downtown Denver. Denver: Colorado Department of Transportation, 1995.

Catalogue of the College of the Sacred Heart, Denver, Colorado, 1893-1894. Denver: C. J. Kelly, Printer and Binder, 1894. OCR Text:
OCR for 1894-1895 Catalog:

OCR for 1895-1896 Catalog:

OCR for 1899-1900 Catalog:

OCR for 1900-1901 Catalog:

OCR for 1903-1904 Catalog:

OCR for 1904-1905 Catalog:

OCR for 1905-1906 Catalog:

Colorado Historical Society Office of Archaeology & Historic Preservation website.

"Colorado Mining Towns" on the "Western Mining History" website.

William Joseph Convery III: Pride of the Rockies: The Life of Colorado's Premiere Irish Patron, John Kernan Mullen. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000.

Arthur Benjamin Cooper: The Story of Our Presbytery of Denver, 1870-1950, Including Earlier Days in the Rockies. Denver: Arthur B. Cooper, 1950. 84 pages.

Sally Crum: People of the Red Earth: American Indians of Colorado. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Ancient City Press, 1996. Lake City, Colorado: Western Reflections Publishing Co., 2009.

Samuel Cushman and J.P. Waterman: The Gold Mines of Gilpin County, Colorado: Historical, Descriptive and Statistical. Central City: Register Steam Printing House, 1876.
"A Few Words to Tourists" (pp. 127-130) are well worth reading, as is the "Official Directory — 1876" (pp. 134-135), which lists US, county, and municipal officials.
Rev. George M. Darley, DD: Pioneering in the San Juan: Personal Reminiscences of Work Done in Southwestern Colorado During the "Great San Juan Excitement." Chicago, New York, and Toronto: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1899.

Carlyle Channing Davis: Olden Times in Colorado. Los Angeles: The Phillips Publishing Company, 1916.
An autobiographical memoir by a newspaperman who moved to Colorado in 1876 and then to Leadville. The book is an interesting and sometimes entertaining account of life in Leadville from 1878 to 1895.
Vincent C. De Baca (ed.) La Gente: Hispano History and Life in Colorado. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 1998.

Peter Decker: "The Utes Must Go!" American Expansion and the Removal of a People. Golden: Fulcrum, 2007.

The 1887 Denver Directory. Charles O. Brantigan, Editor, and Nathan Zeschin, Associate Editor. Denver: Canzona Productions, 2002.
Volume I: The Denver Directory Indexed by Name.

Volume II: The Denver Directory Indexed by Address.

Volume III: Statistical Abstract on Denver in 1887.
José De Onís (ed.): The Hispanic Contribution to the State of Colorado. Published under the auspices of the University of Colorado Centennial Commission. Boulder: Westview Press, 1976.

Lynda Faye Dickson: The Early Club Movement among Black Women in Denver, 1890-1925. PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Colorado, 1982.

W. Carl Dorr: Looking Back. Brighton, Colorado: Brighton Centennial-Bicentennial Committee, 1976.

Lyle W. Dorsett and Michael McCarthy: The Queen City: A History of Denver. 2nd edition. Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 1986.

Phyllis Flanders Dorset: The New Eldorado: The Story of Colorado's Gold and Silver Rushes. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2011.

Sybil Downing and Robert Ellis Smith: Tom Patterson: Colorado Crusader for Change. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1995.

Marshall Eidson: "Iliff Family Papers Biographical Sketches" website. Ira J. Taylor Library Archives, University of Denver.

Vivian Sheldon Epstein: History of Colorado's Women for Young People. Denver, 1997.

Debra Faulkner: Ladies of the Brown: A Women's History of Denver's Most Elegant Hotel. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press, 2010.

First Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Colorado for the Two Years Ending August 31, 1878. Denver: Daily Times Printing House and Book Manufactory, 1879.

First Report of the Industrial Commission of Colorado. August 1, 1915 to December 1, 1917. Administering: Workmen's Compensation Act, Industrial Relations Act, State Compensation Insurance Fund. Denver, Colorado: Hamer Bros., State Printers, 1917.

"First Colorado Volunteer Infantry" website, maintained by a Civil War living history group.

John Stirling Fisher: A Builder of the West: The Life of General William Jackson Palmer. With a chapter on General Palmer's work in Mexico by Chase Mellen. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1939. New York: Arno Press, 1981.

Steven Fisher: "Remembering Allen Breck," University of Denver Magazine. Winter 2001. Vol. 1, 2.

Charles C. Fisk: The Metro Denver Water Story: A Memoir. Aurora, Colorado, 2005. An interesting, beautifully written, personal account by a consulting water engineer who began his work in Colorado in 1946.

Judson Harold Flower: Mormon Colonization of the San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1878-1900. Mesa, Arizona: H.H. Haynie, 1981. Reprint of the author's BYU Master's thesis, 1966.

Albert and Shirley Foos: "The Denver Farm." Typewritten manuscript, 1997.

Frank Fossett: Colorado, Its Gold and Silver Mines, Farms and Stock Ranges, and Health and Pleasure Resorts: Tourist's Guide to the Rocky Mountains. Second Edition. New York: C.G. Crawford, Printer and Stationer, 49 and 51 Park Place, 1880.
Specific details for tourists and interesting descriptions of Colorado in the late 1870s. Highly recommended.
Mark S. Foster: Citizen Quigg: A Mayor's Life of Civic Service. Golden: Fulcrum Group, 2006.
A biography of J. Quigg Newton, a native of Denver who received his B.A. and his law degree from Yale and was mayor of Denver, 1947-1955. He was subsequently president of the University of Colorado (1956-1963) and president of the Commonwealth Fund (1964-1975). Quigg Newton died in Denver on April 4, 2003, at age 91.
Brevet Captain John Charles Frémont: Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the Year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the Years 1843-'44. Printed by Order of the Senate of the United States. Washington: Gales and Seaton, Printers, 1845.

Percy S. Fritz: Colorado the Centennial State. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1941.

Leon Webber Fuller: "Colorado's Revolt Against Capitalism," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 21, pp. 131-144. June-July 1935

Leon Webber Fuller: The Populist Regime in Colorado. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1933.
On Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901), the Populist governor of Colorado from 1893 to 1895.
William Gilpin: Mission of the North American People, Geographical, Social, and Political. Illustrated by Six Charts Delineating the Physical Architecture and Thermal Laws of All the Continents. Second Edition, Revised. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., and London: Trübner & Co., 1874.

Robert Alan Goldberg: Hooded Empire, The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
Colorado was second only to Indiana in the number of Klan members during the 1920s.
Golden Historic Preservation Board: "A Timeline For Golden, Colorado." 1995. Revised 2003.

Joyce D. Goodfriend and Dona K. Flory: "Women in Colorado before the First World War," Colorado Magazine 53:3, Summer 1976, pp. 201-228.

Phil Goodstein: Denver from the Bottom Up. A People's History of Early Colorado. 4 Volumes. Denver: New Social Publications, 2003-2007.Interesting stories, well told — with valuable, detailed notes on sources.
Volume 1: From Sand Creek to Ludlow. 2003.

Volume 2: Robert Speer's Denver 1904-1920: The Mile High City in the Progressive Era. 2004.

Volume 3: In the Shadow of the Klan: When the KKK Ruled Denver, 1920-1926. 2006.

Volume 4: From Soup Lines to the Front Lines: Denver during the Depression and World War II, 1927-1947. 2007.

Phil Goodstein: Denver Streets. Denver: New Social Publications, 1994.

Phil Goodstein: Northside Story: Denver's Most Intriguing Neighborhood. Foreword by Dennis Gallagher. Denver: New Social Publications, 2011.
A detailed guide that's essential for understanding Denver's history.

Calvin W. Gower: "Gold Fever in Kansas Territory: Migration to the Pike's Peak Gold Fields, 1858-1860," Kansas Historical Quarterly, Spring, 1973 (Vol. 39, No. 1), pp. 58-74.

Marshall Conant Graff: A History of Leadville Colorado. A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Master of Arts. University of Wisconsin, 1920.
Graff consulted the printed resources, but also interviewed some of the old-timers who had been in Leadville during the 1870s and 1880s. Graff maintained a healthy skepticism about what he read and was told, and produced an unusually entertaining thesis.

Jerome A. Greene and Douglas D. Scott: Finding Sand Creek: History, Archeology, and the 1864 Massacre Site. Foreword by Christine Whitacre. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.

Fred Greenbaum: Fighting Progressive: A Biography of Edward P. Costigan. Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1971.
Edward Costigan was a founder of the Colorado Progressive Party in 1912, and US Senator from Colorado, 1931-1937.

Herbert J. Hackenburg, Jr.: Muttering Machines to Laser Beams: A History of Mountain Bell. Denver: Mountain Bell, 1986.

Leroy R. Hafen (ed.): Colorado and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1948.

Leroy R. Hafen and Frank M. Young: "The Mormon Settlement at Pueblo, Colorado, During the Mexican War," Colorado Magazine 9:121-136. 1932.

Leroy R. Hafen: The Overland Mail 1849-1869: Promoter of Settlement, Precursor of Railroads. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1926.

Frank Hall, for the Rocky Mountain Historical Company: History of the State of Colorado Embracing Accounts of the Pre-Historic Races and Their Remains; The Lives of the Primitive Hunters, Trappers and Traders; The Commerce of the Prairies; The First American Settlements Founded; The Original Discoveries of Gold in the Rocky Mountains; The Development of Cities and Towns, with the Various Phases of Industrial and Political Tradition, From 1859 to 1890. Illustrated. 4 volumes. Chicago: The Blakely Printing Company, 1889-1895.
Volume 1 covers the period from 1528 until the establishment of the Union Colony of Colorado (Greeley) in 1870.

Volume 2 begins with three chapters on Colorado's geology and then covers the 1870s.

Volume 3 begins with a "Hasty Review of Political Events from 1861 to 1880" and then tells the story until 1887.

Volume 4 continues the history until 1890.

Katherine Harris: Long Vistas: Women and Families on Colorado Homesteads. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1993.

James Rose Harvey: Negroes in Colorado. M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1941.

Augustus Allen Hayes, Jr.: New Colorado and the Santa Fe Trail. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880.

Alice Polk Hill: Tales of the Colorado Pioneers. Denver: Pierson & Gardner, 1884.

Emma Shepard Hill: An Authorized and Complete History of the Central Presbyterian Church of Denver, Colorado 1860-1930. Denver: Eames Brothers, Printers, 1842 Stout Street, 1930.

History of the Arkansas Valley, Colorado. Chicago: O.L. Baskin & Co., Historical Publishers, 1881.
Includes histories of Bent, Chaffee, Custer, El Paso, Fremont, Lake, and Pueblo counties, along a history of the Ten Mile Consolidated Mining District and biographies of prominent citizens of the region.
History and Business Directory of Mesa County, Colorado, Containing a Description of Its Valleys, Ranges, Ranches, Ditch Systems, Illustrations, and Portraits of Some of the Early Settlers and Prominent Men. Edited and Published by The Mesa County Democrat. Chas. W. Haskell, Editor and Proprietor. Grand Junction, Colorado, 1886.

History of Clear Creek and Boulder Valleys, Colorado. Chicago: O.L. Baskin & Co., Historical Publishers, 1880.

"History Colorado"
This is the important website of the organization that was founded in 1879 by Frederick J. Bancroft, MD, as the State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado. It later became the Colorado Historical Society, and now it's History Colorado, an agency of the State of Colorado's Department of Higher Education. Both the museum and its website are highly recommended.

Richard Hogan: Class and Community in Frontier Colorado. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990. An important book by a sociologist who provides interesting historical information as well as sociological analysis.

Olvando James Hollister: The Mines of Colorado. Springfield, Massachusetts: Samuel Bowles & and Company, 1867.
Hollister is described on the title page as "Late Editor and Proprietor Colorado Mining Journal."

Bill Hosokawa: Colorado's Japanese Americans from 1886 to the Present. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005.

J. Donald Hughes: American Indians in Colorado. Boulder: Pruett Publishing, 1977.

Robert K. Hutchings, MD: "Colorado Springs Up to Date," in Transactions of the Colorado State Medical Society 1897, pp. 183-196-a delightful account.
"Written more for the benefit of those who are non-residents and have perhaps heard but little of our place. Many a person in the eastern and central states imagines that in the wild and bibulous west we have no civilized and refined attractions, and that an insurance policy will come in handy to him who is foolhardy enough to venture among us. This paper will endeavor to show why such an opinion is wrong, and to cause a desire to visit us and share our comforts and joys."

George E. Hyde: Life of George Bent Written from His Letters. Edited by Savoie Lottinville. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968.

Charles A. Johnson: Denver's Mayor Speer. Denver: Green Mountain Press, 1969.

Julia Jones-Eddy: Homesteading Women: An Oral History of Colorado, 1890-1950. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

Frances Bollacker Keck: Conquistadors to the 21st Century: A History of Otero and Crowley Counties, Colorado. La Junta, Colorado: Otero Press, 1999.

Clyde Lyndon King, AM: The History of the Government of Denver with Special Reference to its Relations with Public Service Corporations. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Pennsylvania in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Denver: The Fisher Book Company, 43- Seventeenth Street, 1911.
Clyde L. King is described on the title page as "Instructor in Political Science in the University of Pennsylvania, Sometime Peter White Fellow in Michigan University, Acting Professor of Economics and Sociology in the University of Colorado, and Harrison Fellow in the University of Pennsylvania."

Nicolai Kryloff and Patricia J. Rettig (compilers): Colorado Water History: A Bibliography. Fort Collins: Colorado State University, 2008.

Elizabeth Larson: "The Overland Trail" website.

Laws Passed at the Sixth Session of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado, Convened at Denver, on the Fifth Day of January, A.D. 1887. Published by Authority. Denver: Collier & Cleaveland Lith. Co, State Printers, 1887. Includes lists of state officials and more.

Laws Passed at the Ninth Session of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado, Convened at Denver, on the Third Day of January, A.D. 1893. Published by Authority. Denver: The Smith-Brooks Printing Co., State Printers, 1893.

Janet Lecompte: Pueblo, Hardscrabble, Greenhorn: Society on the High Plains, 1832-1856. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

Mabel Barbee Lee: Cripple Creek Days. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Bison Books, 1984.

Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel: Denver: Mining Camp to Metropolis. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, 1991.

Stephen J. Leonard: Denver's Foreign-Born Immigrants, 1859-1900. PhD dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, 1971. 271 pages.
Between 1870 and 1890, nearly 25% of Denver's population was foreign-born; Germans, Irish, British, Scandinavians, and Canadians accounted for more than half of that number There were also numerous Italians and Chinese. British mining experts and investors made up one particularly interesting subgroup.

James Edward Le Rossignol, AM, PhD: History of Higher Education in Colorado. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1903.
The author was professor of history and economics at the University of Denver.

Patricia Nelson Limerick: The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. NY: Norton, 1987.

Patricia Nelson Limerick and Jason Hanson: A Ditch in Time: The City, the West, and Water. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2012. The origin and development of the Denver Water Department.

Margaret Long, MD: The Smoky Hill Trail: Following the Old Historic Pioneers Trails on the Modern Highways. Denver, 1953.
Dr. Margaret Long — a native of Hingham, Massachusetts, who graduated from Smith College in 1895 and received her MD in 1903 from Johns Hopkins — moved to Colorado in 1905 because of her tuberculosis. She was a clinical pathologist and epidemiologist at Denver hospitals and was one of the founders of the Sands House Sanatorium in Denver in 1915. Note that Dr. Long's good friend, Dr. Florence Sabin, graduated from Smith in 1893 and received her MD from Johns Hopkins in 1900.

Lionel D. Lyles: An Historical-Urban Geographical Analysis of Black Neighborhood Development in Denver, 1860-1970. PhD thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1977.

Mildred Sherwood MacArthur: History of the German Element in the State of Colorado. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1917.

Jan MacKell: Brothels, Bordellos, and Bad Girls: Prostitution in Colorado, 1860-1930. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.

Joseph G. McCoy: Historic Sketches of the Cattle Trade of the West and Southwest. Kansas City, Missouri: Ramsey, Millett & Hudson, 1874. By the self-described "Pioneer Western Cattle Shipper."
Chapter XVII includes an interesting discussion of Northeastern Colorado and the Colorado Stock-Growers Association from the point of view of someone who participated in what was going on in the late 1860s and early 1870s.

Maria Davies McGrath: The Real Pioneers of Colorado. Civil Works Administration project by the Document Division of the Denver Museum, 1934.

Steven F. Mehls: The New Empire of the Rockies: A History of Northeast Colorado. Bureau of Land Management - Colorado. Cultural Resources Series Number 16. 1984.

Steven F. Mehls: The Valley of Opportunity: A History of West-Central Colorado. Bureau of Land Management — Colorado. Cultural Resources Series Number 12. 1982.

Henry Miles: Orpheus in the Wilderness: A History of Music in Denver, 1860-1925. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 2006.

Enos A. Mills: The Rocky Mountain Wonderland. With Illustrations from Photographs. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915.

Nicholas G. Morgan: "Mormon Colonization in the San Luis Valley," Colorado Magazine 27:269-293. 1950.

John R. Morris: David Hanson Waite: The Ideology of a Western Populist. PhD dissertation, University of Colorado, 1965.

Earl L. Mosley: History of the Denver Water System, 1859-1919. 2 volumes. With analytical table of contents by Louisa Ward Arps. Unpublished manuscript, 1966. Denver Public Library has a photocopy and a microfilm copy.

Nolie Mumey, MD: History of the Early Settlements of Denver (1599-1860): with Reproductions of the First City Directory, the 1859 Map, the First Issue of the Rocky Mountain News and the Rare Cherry Creek Pioneer. "Edition limited to five hundred signed copies." Glendale, California: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1942.

Andrew E. Murray: The Skyline Synod: Presbyterianism in Colorado and Utah. Denver: Golden Bell Press, 1971.

Sandra L. Myers: Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1982.

Sarah Milledge Nelson: Denver: An Archaeological History. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Thomas J. Noel: Buildings of Colorado. New York, Oxford University Press, 1997.

Thomas J. Noel with Kevin E. Rucker and Stephen J. Leonard: Colorado Givers: A History of Philanthropic Heroes. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1998.

Thomas J. Noel and Debra Faulkner: The Colorado Story. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith Education, 2011. A text for use in schools.

Thomas J. Noel and Debra Faulkner: Colorado: An Illustrated History of the Highest State. Sun Valley, California: American Historical Press, 2006.

Thomas J. Noel: Denver: The City & The Saloon, 1858-1916. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982. Reprint: University Press of Colorado, 1966.

Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren: Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 1893-1941. Denver: Historic Denver, 1987.

Thomas J. Noel: "Denver's History" website. The "in-depth narrative history of Denver" includes wonderful stories, interestingly told.

Thomas J. Noel: Denver Landmarks & Historic Districts: A Pictorial Guide. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1996.

Thomas J. Noel: Denver's Larimer Street: Main Street, Skid Row, and Urban Renaissance. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1981.

Thomas J. Noel, Paul F. Mahoney, and Richard E. Stevens: Historical Atlas of Colorado. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Thomas J. Noel: Mile High City: An Illustrated History of Denver. Heritage Media Corp., 1997.

Robert C. Olson: Speck: The Life and Times of Spencer Penrose. Lake City, Colorado: Western Reflections Publishing Co., 2008.

Jan Onofrio: Colorado Biographical Dictionary: People of All Times and All Places Who Have Been Important to the History and Life of the State. Scholarly Press, 2007.

Paul M. O'Rourke: Frontier in Transition: A History of Southwestern Colorado. Bureau of Land Management, Colorado Cultural Resources Series Number 10, 1980.

Dennis and Judy Partridge: "Colorado Genealogy" website.

Robert L. Perkin: The First Hundred Years: An Informal History of Denver and the Rocky Mountain News, 1859-1959. Forward by Gene Fowler. 32 pages of photographs. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1959.

Giovanni Perili, MD: Colorado and the Italians in Colorado. In English and Italian. 1922.

Portrait and Biographical Record of Denver and Vicinity, Colorado. Chicago: Chapman Publishing Company, 1898.

Portrait and Biographical Record of the State of Colorado: Containing Portraits and Biographies of Many Well-Known Citizens of the Past and Present. Chicago: Chapman Publishing Company, 1899. Part 2, pp. 777ff.:

Proceedings at the Inauguration of James H. Baker, LL.D., as President of the University of Colorado, Saturday, May 21, 1892. Together with Addresses Delivered by President Baker on Other Occasions. Printed under the Direction of the Inauguration Committee. Denver: Times Job Print.

Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention Held in Denver, December 20, 1875, to Frame A Constitution for the State of Colorado. . . . Published by Timothy O'Connor, Secretary of State. Denver, Colorado: The Smith-Brooks Press, State Publishers, 1907.

Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention of the National Live Stock Association. Denver, Colorado, January 24, 25, 26 and 27. Published and Presented to the National Live Stock Association by the Denver Chamber of Commerce, with an Appendix on the City of Denver and Its Resources. Officially Compiled by Charles F. Martin, Secretary. 1899.

Progressive Men of Western Colorado, Illustrated. Chicago: A.W. Bowen & Co., 1905. Informative paid-for biographies.

Nell Brown Propst: Those Strenuous Dames of the Colorado Prairie. Boulder: Pruett, 1982.

Provisional Laws and Joint Resolutions Passed at the First and Called Sessions of the General Assembly of Jefferson Territory, Held at Denver City, J.T., November and December, 1859, and January, 1860. Published by Authority. Omaha, N.T.: Robertson & Clark, Printers, 1860.

Robert S. Pulcipher (ed.): The Pioneer Western Bank: First of Denver, 1860-1980, by Eugene H. Adams, Lyle W. Dorsett, and Robert S. Pulcipher. Denver: First Interstate Bank of Denver, State Historical Society of Colorado, Colorado Heritage Center, 1984.

Robert S. Pulcipher: "We propose to make this one of the permanent institutions of Colorado": A Thesis and History of the First National Bank of Denver, its Officers, and Directors, 1858 to 1915. New York: Stonier Graduate School of Banking, 1971.

Benjamin McKie Rastall: "The Cripple Creek Strike of 1893," Colorado College Studies, Social Science Series Vol. II, pp. 1-48. June 1905.

Ira De Augustine Reid: The Negro Population of Denver, Colorado: A Survey of its Economic and Social Status. National Urban League. Denver: Lincoln Press, 1929.

Reminiscences of General William Larimer and of His Son William H.H. Larimer, Two of the Founders of Denver City. Compiled from Letters: and from Notes Written by the Late William H.H. Larimer, of Kansas City, Missouri, by Herman S. David, Ph.D. Printed for Private Circulation under the Auspices of William Larimer Mellon of Pittsburgh, Pa. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Press of The New Era Printing Company, 1918.

Representative Men of Colorado in the Nineteenth Century; a portrait gallery of many of the men who have been instrumental in the upbuilding of Colorado, including not only the pioneers, but others who, coming later, have added their quota, until the once territory is now the splendid state. New York and Denver: The Rowell Art Publishing Company, 1902. Photographs with captions.

Representative Women of Colorado: A Pictorial Collection of the Women of Colorado Who Have Attained Prominence in the Social, Political, Professional, Pioneer and Club Life of the State. Published by James Alexander Semple, president of the Alexander Art Publishing Company, Denver, Colorado, 1911. Deluxe edition: Denver: The Williamson-Haffner Company, 1914.
This book of photographs with captions is quite interesting, marred only by the contemporary practice of identifying many of the women only by their husbands' names.

Albert D. Richardson: Beyond the Mississippi: From the Great River to the Great Ocean. Life and Adventure on the Prairies, Mountains, and Pacific Coast. Hartford, Connecticut: American Publishing Company, 1869.

Marilyn Griggs Riley: High Altitude Attitudes: Six Savvy Colorado Women. Foreword by Thomas J. Noel. Boulder: Johnson Books, 2006.
Essays on Louise Sneed Hill (1861-1955), Justina L. Ford (1871-1952), May Bonfils Stanton (1883-1962), Helen Gilmer Bonfils (1889-1972), Caroline Bancroft (1900-1985), and Mary Coyle Chace (1906-1981). Carefully researched; enjoyable and enlightening reading, with important insights into Denver's class structure as it evolved after 1900.
Janet Robertson: The Magnificent Mountain Women: Adventures in the Colorado Rockies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

John D. Rockefeller, Jr.: The Colorado Industrial Plan. Including a Copy of the Plan of Representation and Agreement Adopted at the Coal and Iron Mines of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. 1916.

Rocky Mountain Directory and Colorado Gazetteer, for 1871, Comprising a brief history of Colorado, and a condensed but comprehensive account of her Mining, Agricultural, Commercial and Manufacturing Interests, Climatology, Inhabitants, Advantages and Industries, together with a complete and accurate Directory of Denver, Golden City, Black Hawk, Central City, Nevada, Idaho, Georgetown, Boulder, Greeley, Colorado City, Pueblo, Trinidad, Etc. First Year of Publication. Denver: S.S. Wallihan & Company, Compilers and Publishers, 1871.

"The Sand Creek Massacre Timeline 1800- 1865" website. An unusually detailed and well-done chronology. Highly recommended.

Richard A. Ronzio: Silver Images of Colorado: Denver Album & the 1866 Business Directory. Edited by Robert W. McLeod. Denver: Sundance Publications, 1986.

O.R. Salmans and J.M. Auld: Cripple Creek: A Standard History of the Mines and Mining Companies of America's Greatest Gold Camp and Other Mining Camps of Colorado, U.S.A. Correct to Date. Compiled from Land Office Records and Official Reports of the Various Companies Mentioned Herein. January, 1901.

Albert E. Sanford (ed.) "Life at Camp Weld and Fort Lyon in 1861-1862: An Extract from the Diary of Mrs. Byron N. Sanford," Colorado Magazine 7:4, pp. 132-139. 1930.

H. Lee Scamehorn: Pioneer Steelmaker in the West: The Colorado Fuel and Iron Company 1872-1903. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing Company, 1976.

Mary Lindenmuth Scarrello: Mormon Pioneers in Pueblo, Colorado, 1846-1900. Published by the author, 1993.

Lyle L. Schaefer: Faith to Move Mountains: A History of the Colorado District of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod from the Earliest Mission Work, 1872-1968. Denver: Colorado District, Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, 1969.
Includes a section on the origins of Lutheran Hospital. A volume updating this history was published in 1982.

Adam Schrager: The Principled Politician: The Ralph Carr Story. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2008.

Susan Schulten: "How to See Colorado: The Federal Writers' Project, American Regionalism, and the 'Old New Western History'," Western Historical Quarterly (Spring 2005), pp. 49-70. Interesting and important.

Carole E. Scott: "North Georgia Miners and the Settlement of the Rocky Mountain Region," 1996.

Clark Secrest: Hell's Belles: Prostitution, Vice and Crime in Early Denver. With a Biography of Sam Howe, Frontier Lawman. Revised edition. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002.

Sketches of Colorado in Four Volumes. Being an Analytical Summary and Biographical History of the State of Colorado as Portrayed in the Lives of the Pioneers, the Founders, the Builders, the Statesmen, and the Prominent and Progressive Citizens Who Helped in the Development and History Making of Colorado. Denver, Colorado: The Western Press Bureau Company, 1911.
Volume I:

Jerome C. Smiley (editor): History of Denver: with outlines of the earlier history of the Rocky Mountain country. Denver: The Denver Times, 1901, 1903.

Jerome C. Smiley: Semi-Centennial History of the State of Colorado. With Frank C. Goudy, Fred P. Johnson, L.E. Lemen, W.F.R. Mills, Robert S. Morrison, Walter H. Olin, and Wilbur F. Stone. 2 Volumes. Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1913. –and–

Duane A. Smith: The Birth of Colorado: A Civil War Perspective. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Duane A. Smith: Rocky Mountain Mining Camps: The Urban Frontier. Lake City, Colorado: Western Reflections Publishing Co., 2009.

Duane Smith: "Chaffee: The Man behind the Name," Colorado Central Magazine, August 2003.

P. David Smith: A Quick History of Ouray. Lake City, Colorado: Western Reflections Publishing Co., 1999.

Phyllis Smith: A Look at Boulder: From Settlement to City. Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company, 1981.

Dave Southworth: Colorado Mining Camps. Round Rock, Texas: Wild Horse Publishing, 1997.

Gary Spina: The Mountain Man's Field Guide to Grammar: A Fearless Adventure in Grammar, Style, and Usage. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2006. Quoted by Lance Myers on the website at

Agnes Wright Spring: Denver's Historic Markers, Memorials, Statues and Parks. Denver: State Historical Society of Colorado, 1959.

Marshall Sprague: Newport in the Rockies: The Life and Good Times of Colorado Springs. Denver: Sage Books, 1961.

Jeffrey Stanton: "Elitch Gardens — 1890-1994." National Amusement Park Historical Association website.

Carolyn J. Stefanco: Pathways to Power: Women and Voluntary Associations in Denver, Colorado, 1876-1893. PhD dissertation, Duke University, 1987.

Ronald J. Stephens, La Wanna M. Larson, and the Black American West Museum: African Americans of Denver. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2008.

Wilbur Fiske Stone (editor): History of Colorado. 4 Volumes. Chicago: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1918.
The first volume is a history of Colorado, and Volumes 2-4 contain biographies of Coloradans. The S.J. Clarke company was a vanity publishing firm, and the volume on the history of Colorado was just a lead-in to the biographies, which were paid for by their subjects or by people who wanted particular Coloradans to be included.

According to these volumes, therefore, everyone always did good and decent things of great value to society, and everyone was honest, hardworking, and widely admired. The biographies reflect the values of the time — the adjective "progressive" is one of the ones the biographers use when they want to give high praise, which is quite often. The enduring value of the S.J. Clarke Publishing Company "booster history" volumes and others like them-despite the tall tales and occasional score-settling-lies in the factual information they provide, including dates, personal background, education, and career highlights.

Volume 1:
Volume 2:
Volume 3:
Volume 4:

William G.M. Stone: The Colorado hand-book: Denver and its outings: A guide for tourists and book of general information, with some bits of early history. Denver: Barkhausen & Lester, printers, 1892.

George G. Suggs, Jr.: Colorado's War on Militant Unionism: James H. Peabody and the Western Federation of Miners. Original edition, 1972. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Treaty of Fort Laramie, September 17, 1851.

Jeanne Varnell: Women of Consequence: The Colorado Women's Hall of Fame. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1999.

William B. Vickers: History of the City of Denver, Arapahoe County, Colorado, Containing a History of the State of Colorado, from its earliest settlement to the present time, embracing its geological, physical and climatic features, its agricultural, stock-growing, railroad and mining interests, &c.; a condensed sketch of Arapahoe County; a History of the City of Denver, giving an account of its early settlement and growth, its improvements, its business and industries, churches, schools, &c. ; Biographical Sketches; Portraits of some of the Early Settlers and Prominent Men ; Views of Public Buildings, Private Residences, Business Houses, &c, &c. Illustrated. Chicago: O. L. Baskin & Co., Historical Publishers. 155 Dearborn Street. 1880.
The book's article "History of Colorado," by William B. Vickers of Greeley, is aggressively racist with regard to Native Americans, expressing opinions that were common when the essay was written in 1879.

Wellington Webb: Wellington Webb: The Man, the Mayor, and the Making of Modern Denver. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 2007.

Elliott West: Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado. Lawrence, Kansas: The University of Kansas Press, 1998. An important book that is a joy to read.

Elliott West: Growing Up With the Country: Childhood on the Far Western Frontier. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989.

Junius E. Wharton: History of the City of Denver from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. To Which is Added a Full and Complete Business Directory of the City by D.O. Wilhelm. Denver: Byers & Dailey, Printers, News Office, 1866. The 1866 business and residential directories are online here:

William Clarke Whitford, DD: Colorado Volunteers in the Civil War: The New Mexico Campaign in 1862. Preface by Jerome C. Smiley. Illustrated. Denver: The State Historical and Natural History Society, 1906.

W.H. Whitney: Directory of Trinidad, Colorado, for 1888, together with a Resume of its Advantages as a Mining, Manufacturing, and Distributing Centre. Profusely Illustrated. Trinidad: Advertiser Steam Job Print, 1888.

Milo Lee Whittaker: Pathbreakers and Pioneers of the Pueblo Region, Comprising a History of Pueblo from the Earliest Times. Philadelphia: The Franklin Press Company, 1917.

Walter Lawson Wilder: Robert Wilbur Steele, Defender of Liberty. Memorial Edition, Privately Printed. 200 copies. Denver: Carson-Harper Co, 1913.
Robert W. Steele, Colorado's chief justice (1907-1910), was the son of Dr. Henry King Steele, whose story is also told in this interesting biography.

James Field Willard: The Union Colony at Greeley, Colorado, 1869-1871. Boulder, 1918. James F. Willard was professor of history at the University of Colorado.

Elinor Wilson: Jim Beckwourth: Black Mountain Man and War Chief of the Crows. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.

Linda Wommack: From the Grave: A Roadside Guide to Colorado's Pioneer Cemeteries. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 1998.

Richard E. Wood: Here Lies Colorado: Fascinating Figures in Colorado History. Helena, Montana: Farcountry Press, 2005.

Henry Russell Wray, Esq.: "A Unique Western City," in Government: A Monthly Magazine of Economic and Applied Politics, Vol. 3, 1908, pp. 77-89, about Colorado Springs.

James Edward Wright: The Politics of Populism: Dissent in Colorado. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974.

Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the State of Colorado: Colorado: A Guide to the Highest State. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1941.
A wonderfully detailed, interesting guide to Colorado during the 1930s.

Walker D. Wyman: "Grand Junction's First Year, 1882," Colorado Magazine 13:127-137. 1936.

Francis Crissey Young: Across the Plains in '65: A Youngster's Journal from "Gotham" to "Pike's Peak." Denver, Colorado, November 1905. Souvenir Edition, Privately Printed by Lanning Bros. Printers and Publishers, Denver, Colo.

Alisa Zahller: Italy in Colorado: Family Histories from Denver and Beyond. Denver: Colorado Historical Society, 2008.

Stanley W. Zamonski and Teddy Keller: The '59ers: Roaring Denver in the Gold Rush Days. 3rd edition. Frederick, Colorado: Platte'n Press, 1983. First published in 1961.

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